Assessment is based on: (1) USGS ambient water quality monitoring conducted on the Nishnabotna River at Hamburg from January 2006 to December 2008, (2) IDNR/UHL biological (REMAP) monitoring in 2003, and (3) EPA/IDNR fish contaminant (RAFT) monitoring in 2002.
Basis for Assessment
[Note: Prior to the 2008 Section 305(b) cycle, this stream segment was designated only for Class B(WW) aquatic life uses, including fish consumption uses. Due to changes in Iowa’s surface water classification that were approved by U.S. EPA in February 2008 (see http://www.iowadnr.com/water/standards/files/06mar_swc.pdf) and results of an Use Attainability Analysis, this segment is also now designated for Class A1 (primary contact recreation) uses. This segment remains designated for warmwater aquatic life use (now termed Class B(WW1) uses), and for fish consumption uses (now termed Class HH (human health/fish consumption uses).]
SUMMARY: The Class A1 (primary contact recreation) uses remain “not assessed” due to the lack of monitoring data for indicator bacteria upon which to base an assessment. The Class B(WW1) aquatic life uses remain assessed (evaluated) as “partially supported” based on results of biological monitoring in 2003. The fish consumption uses remain assessed (evaluated) as “fully supported” based on results of fish contaminant monitoring in 2002 and based on comparison of USGS ambient water quality data to Iowa’s human health (HH) criteria. The sources of data for this assessment include the results of (1) USGS ambient water quality monitoring conducted on the Nishnabotna River at Hamburg (station 06810000) from January 2006 to December 2008, (2) IDNR/UHL biological (REMAP) monitoring in 2003, and (3) EPA/IDNR fish contaminant (RAFT) monitoring in 2002.
EXPLANATION: The Class A1 uses remain “not assessed” due to the lack of monitoring data for indicator bacteria upon which to base an assessment. The ambient water quality monitoring conducted by USGS in the river segment from 2006-2008 did not include measurement of indicator bacteria.
The Class B(WW1) aquatic life uses remain assessed (evaluated) as "partially supported" based on results of IDNR/UHL biological (REMAP) monitoring in 2003. A series of biological metrics that reflect stream water quality and habitat integrity were calculated from the biocriteria sampling data. The biological metrics are based on the numbers and types of benthic macroinvertebrate taxa and fish species collected in the stream sampling reach. The biological metrics were combined to make a fish community index of biotic integrity (FIBI) and a benthic macroinvertebrate index (BMIBI). The indexes rank the biological integrity of a stream sampling reach on a rising scale from 0 (minimum) to 100 (maximum). The 2003 FIBI score was 5 (poor) and the BMIBI score was 54 (fair). The aquatic life use support was assessed (evaluated) as Partially Supporting (=PS), based on a comparison of the FIBI and BMIBI scores with biological impairment criteria (BIC) established from a statistical analysis of data collected at stream ecoregion reference sites from 1994-2004. The FIBI BIC for this ecoregion is 31 and the BMIBI BIC for this ecoregion is 54. This assessment is considered evaluated because the drainage area (2,818 mi2) above this sampling site was greater than the maximum limit (500 mi2) that was used to calibrate the Iowa wadeable stream impairment criteria. Even though this site failed the FIBI BIC and passed the BMIBI BIC, it is uncertain as to whether or not this segment is meeting the aquatic life criteria because it doesn’t fall in the calibrated watershed size. According to IDNR’s assessment/listing methodology, impairments based on “evaluated” assessments are of lesser confidence and are thus not appropriate for Section 303(d) listing (Category 5 of the Integrated Report). IDNR does, however, consider these impairments as appropriate for listing under either Category 2b or 3b of the Integrated Report (waters potentially impaired and in need of further investigation).
In contrast to the results of biological monitoring that suggest only “partial support” of the Class B(WW1) uses, results of water quality monitoring by the U.S. Geological Survey above Hamburg from 2006-2008 suggest “full support” of these uses. No violations of state water quality criteria occurred in the 35 samples analyzed for ammonia, pH, and dissolved oxygen during this period. No violations of Class B(WW1) criteria occurred in the 35 samples analyzed for the pesticides chlorpyrifos and dieldrin. These results suggest "full support" of the Class B(WW1) aquatic life uses.
Fish consumption uses remain assessed (monitored) as “fully supported” based on results of U.S.EPA/IDNR fish contaminant (RAFT) monitoring near Hamburg in 2002. The composite samples of fillets from common carp had low levels of contaminants. Levels of primary contaminants in the composite sample of common carp fillets were as follows: mercury: 0.085 ppm; total PCBs: 0.093 ppm; and technical chlordane: 0.03 ppm. [Note: Typically, samples of both bottom-feeding fish (e.g., common carp) and predator species (e.g., largemouth bass) are collected at RAFT status sites such as the Nishnabotna River at Hamburg. Predator species, however, are naturally rare in rivers of southwestern Iowa, and RAFT status samples from these rivers typically contain only the bottom-feeder sample.] The existence of, or potential for, a fish consumption advisory is the basis for Section 305(b) assessments of the degree to which Iowa’s lakes and rivers support their fish consumption uses. The fish contaminant data generated from the 2002 RAFT sampling conducted in this assessment segment show that the levels of contaminants do not exceed any of Iowa’s advisory trigger levels, thus indicating no justification for issuance of a consumption advisory for this waterbody.
One of 35 samples analyzed for dieldrin at USGS station 06810000 during the 2006-2008 period exceeded the Iowa human health-fish (HH-fish) criterion of 0.00054 ppb. The level of dieldrin in the sample collected on June 11, 2008 was a remarked data value estimated at 0.002 ppb. According to USGS, their estimated values represent legitimate data points that, while estimated, nonetheless can be used for comparison to water quality criteria, especially given the order of magnitude difference between the USGS estimated value for dieldrin (0.002 ppb) versus Iowa’s human-health (fish) criterion for dieldrin of 0.00054 ppb. Levels of dieldrin in the remaining 34 samples collected during the 2006-08 period were all reported as less than the level of detection of 0.009 ppb. For purposes of Section 305(b) assessment, Iowa DNR views the Human Health criterion for dieldrin as analogous to a chronic criterion for a toxic parameter. Thus, impairment of the HH use by dieldrin would be suggested if significantly more than 10% of the samples violated this criterion. Because only 3% of the samples (1 of 33) violated this criterion, this violation does not indicate impairment of the HH-fish use. Results of the most recent fish contaminant sampling in this river segment conducted in 2002 as part of the U.S. EPA/IDNR RAFT program showed 11 ppb of dieldrin in the composite sample of common carp fillets. Although Iowa does not have an advisory trigger level for dieldrin, the level of dieldrin seen in the 2002 sampling is well below the Iowa’s previous advisory trigger of 300 ppb of dieldrin (i.e., the U.S. FDA action level for dieldrin). Levels of dieldrin in Iowa fish have declined significantly since the early and mid-1980s when levels of 300 ppb to 500 ppb were not uncommon.